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Mahmud Kaşğarlı - Махмуд Кашгари

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Махмуд ал-Кашгари

Махмуд ибн ал-Хусайн ибн Мухаммад ал-Кашгари (уйг. مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, Мәhмут Қәшқәри; 1029—1101) — тюркский учёный из Кашгара.

Родился в правление династии Караханидов и происходил из высших кругов караханидской знати. Его отец управлял городом Баласагун. Кашгари работал в основном в Багдаде и известен благодаря созданному им «Собранию тюркских наречий» (Kitâbü divân-i lûgat it-Türk) — словарю-справочнику различных тюркских языков.


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The First Turkish World Map, by Kashgari (1072)

This map, made by Mahmud Kashgari bin Husayn bin Muhammad, was included in his Divanu Lügat-it-Türk, a scientific work he published in 1072 (AD) for the benefit of the Caliph of Baghdad. It is the first world map of Turkish origin known in history, and is preserved at the General National Library (Millet Genel Kütüphanesi) in Istanbul. It is presented on a stamp issued in 1972, on the occasion of the map’s nine-hundredth birthday.

The map is oriented with the east on top (but is shown here with north on top) and centres on the Turkic areas in Central Asia, which include Kashgar, the birth-place of Kashgari. The map scale is reduced towards the edges of the map. The geographical features are colour-coded thus:

Blue – rivers
Green – seas
Light yellow – deserts
Red – mountains
Yellow – cities, countries, lands and peoples

This map was taken from the excellent stamp website mentioned in the previous post, and is overlaid with numbers 1-24 to indicate references to (mostly) real places. Which are:

1. Bulgaria (judging by its location, probably the so-called Wolga-Bulgaria rather than present-day Bulgaria)
2. Caspian Sea
3. ‘Rus’ (Russia)
4. Alexandria
5. Egypt
6. Tashkent
7.Japan (surrounded by a green semicircle)
8.China (with water to the west)
9. Balasagun (now in Kyrgyzstan, then the ‘centre of the world’)
10. Kashgar (the map-maker’s birthplace)
11. Samarqand
12. Iraq
13. Azerbaijan
14. Yemen
15. East Somalia
16. East Sahara
17. Ethiopia
18. North Somalia
19. Indus
20. Hindustan
21. Ceylon (Adam’s Peak or Jebel Serandib, indicated by the red dot on the south of the island, supposedly is where Adam was exiled to after being kicked out of Paradise)
22. Kashmir
23. Gog and Magog (Biblical/legendary land walled off from the world by a mountain range)
24. The World-Encircling Sea


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